Special Turkish Court

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Baglama is the most commonly used string folk instrument in Turkey. It takes different names according to the regions and according to its size such as Baglama, Divan Sazi, Bozuk, Çögür, Kopuz Irizva, Cura, Tambura, etc. Cura is the smallest member of the baglama family with the highest pitched sound. The member one size bigger than cura which gives a sound that is one octave lower than cura is the tambura. And the one with the deepest sound is the Divan sazi whose sound is one octave lower compared to tambura. Baglama has three main parts called Tekne, Gögüs and Sap. Tekne part is generally made from mulberry trees as well as from woods of juniper, beech, spruce or walnut. The gögüs part is made from spruce and the sap section from homespun or juniper. There are pieces called burgu (screw) at the end of the sap which is opposite to tekne part to which the strings are tied. These screws are used for tuning. There are pitches on the sap tied with fish line. Baglama is played with a Mizrap or Tezene made from cherry wood bark or plastic and fingers are used in some regions. The later technique is called Selpe.

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ContentBaglama is the most commonly used string folk instrument in Turkey. It takes different names according to the regions and according to its size such as Baglama, Divan Sazi, Bozuk, Çögür, Kopuz Irizva, Cura, Tambura, etc. Cura is the smallest member of the baglama family with the highest pitched sound. The member one size bigger than cura which gives a sound that is one octave lower than cura is the tambura. And the one with the deepest sound is the Divan sazi whose sound is one octave lower compared to tambura. Baglama has three main parts called Tekne, Gögüs and Sap. Tekne part is generally made from mulberry trees as well as from woods of juniper, beech, spruce or walnut. The gögüs part is made from spruce and the sap section from homespun or juniper. There are pieces called burgu (screw) at the end of the sap which is opposite to tekne part to which the strings are tied. These screws are used for tuning. There are pitches on the sap tied with fish line. Baglama is played with a Mizrap or Tezene made from cherry wood bark or plastic and fingers are used in some regions. The later technique is called Selpe.Setar is a string or stringed instrument. In these musical instruments a stretched vibrating string produces the initial sound. They are called Chordophones as well. "Setar" consists of "Se" and "Târ". The word "Tar" means string and the word "Se" means three in Persian and for this reason "Setar" means a stringed instrument with three strings. Setar is a plucked string instrument and and the right index finger nail is used as a plectrum to pluck or strum the instrument. Setar is a fretted string instrument, thus the instrument has frets that have been tied on the neck. Setar is one of the main instruments of Persian art music.

Islamic State militants set fire to sulfur stocks at a factory south of Mosul, the U.S. military said Saturday, creating a plume of noxious smoke that has drifted over a base with U.S. troops involved in the Iraqi offensive to retake the city and forcing some to put on gas masks as a precaution.

People in the area affected by the smoke said it was difficult to breathe, burned their eyes and stung their noses and throats when they inhaled it, and burned any exposed wet skin as the cloud intermittently blew over the area depending on winds.

HOSSEIN ALIZADEH is considered an inspiration to an entire generation of Iran’s musical culture. He was born in Tehran in 1951, and has studied with various masters of traditional Persian music, including Ali Akbar Khan Shahnazi, Nur Ali Borumand, Abdollah Davami, Mahmood Karimi, and Houshang Zarif. He further expanded his formal education by studying composition and musicology at the University of Berlin. Alizadeh was awarded a position with the National Orchestra of Iran and later became the conductor and soloist of the Iranian National Radio and Television Orchestra. He founded the Aref Ensemble and performed with the Shayda Ensemble, both dedicated to the promotion and advancement of Iranian classical music. He also participated in the orchestra of the Béjart Ballet Company in a performance of Gulistan, by Maurice Béjart. In 2000, the Ministry of Culture in Iran declared him the best contemporary artist.Tanbur has epic, mythical and mystical characteristics and it is often used to accompany the narration of epics. This instrument has traveled far and wide in time and space and it has taken on different names and shapes. The neck and body of Tanbur is one whole piece similar to Setar. Between 10 to 15 frets are placed on Tanbur. Iranian Tanbur has 4 strings and as mentioned before is played without a pick. Based on 3 statues found in the ruins of Shoosh, Tanbur can be dated back to 1500 B.C. Persian Tanbur travelled through Iran and Syria to Turkey and Greece and further west to Egypt. The Egyptian version has an elliptical body. It is known that Tanbur was widely used during the Sasanid dynasty and even before that. Today, Tanbur is used in mystical circles to accompany the Darvishes’ chants and mantras and is usually accompanied by Daf on such occasions.
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