Kamanche Ramin bohayrayi

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The kamānche or kamāncha (Persian: کمانچه ) is a Persian/Iranian bowed stringed instrument related to the bowed rebab, the historical ancestor of the kamancheh and also to the bowed lira of the Byzantine Empire, ancestor of the European violin family. The strings are played with a variable-tension bow: the word “kamancheh” means “little bow” in Persian (kæman, bow, and -cheh, diminutive). It is widely used in the classical music of Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan,Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, with slight variations in the structure of the instrument. Traditionally kamanchehs had three silk strings, but modern ones have four metal ones. Kamanchehs may have highly ornate inlays and fancy carved ivorytuning pegs. The body has a long upper neck and a lower bowl-shaped resonating chamber made from a gourd or wood, usually covered with a membrane, made from the skin of a lamb, goat or sometimes fish, on which the bridge is set. From the bottom protrudes a spike to support the kamancheh while it is being played, hence in English the instrument is sometimes called the spiked fiddle. It is played sitting down held like a cello though it is about the length of a viola. The end-pin can rest on the knee or thigh while seated in a chair. Famous Iranian kamancheh players include Ali-Asghar Bahari, Ardeshir Kamkar, Saeed Farajpouri, and Kayhan Kalhor. Famous Azeri kamancheh player is Habil Aliev. The Turkish and Armenian kemenche or kemençe is a bowed string instrument with a very similar or identical name—but it differs significantly in structure and sound from the Persian kamancheh. Other bowed string instruments akin to the kamancheh, yet differing more than slightly from it, include the kemenche of the Pontic Greeks of the black Sea, the old Russian Gudok, the Persian Ghaychak, and the Kazakh Kobyz. Persian traditional classical music also uses the ordinary violin with Persian tuning. The kamancheh and the ordinary violin are tuned in the same way and have the same range but different timbres due to their differing sound boxes

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ContentThe kamānche or kamāncha (Persian: کمانچه ) is a Persian/Iranian bowed stringed instrument related to the bowed rebab, the historical ancestor of the kamancheh and also to the bowed lira of the Byzantine Empire, ancestor of the European violin family. The strings are played with a variable-tension bow: the word "kamancheh" means "little bow" in Persian (kæman, bow, and -cheh, diminutive). It is widely used in the classical music of Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan,Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, with slight variations in the structure of the instrument. Traditionally kamanchehs had three silk strings, but modern ones have four metal ones. Kamanchehs may have highly ornate inlays and fancy carved ivorytuning pegs. The body has a long upper neck and a lower bowl-shaped resonating chamber made from a gourd or wood, usually covered with a membrane, made from the skin of a lamb, goat or sometimes fish, on which the bridge is set. From the bottom protrudes a spike to support the kamancheh while it is being played, hence in English the instrument is sometimes called the spiked fiddle. It is played sitting down held like a cello though it is about the length of a viola. The end-pin can rest on the knee or thigh while seated in a chair. Famous Iranian kamancheh players include Ali-Asghar Bahari, Ardeshir Kamkar, Saeed Farajpouri, and Kayhan Kalhor. Famous Azeri kamancheh player is Habil Aliev. The Turkish and Armenian kemenche or kemençe is a bowed string instrument with a very similar or identical name—but it differs significantly in structure and sound from the Persian kamancheh. Other bowed string instruments akin to the kamancheh, yet differing more than slightly from it, include the kemenche of the Pontic Greeks of the black Sea, the old Russian Gudok, the Persian Ghaychak, and the Kazakh Kobyz. Persian traditional classical music also uses the ordinary violin with Persian tuning. The kamancheh and the ordinary violin are tuned in the same way and have the same range but different timbres due to their differing sound boxesAlbumin is an appealing carrier in nanomedicine because of its unique features. First, it is the most abundant protein in plasma, endowing high biocompatibility, biodegradability, nonimmunogenicity, and safety for its clinical application. Second, albumin chemical structure and conformation allows interaction with many different drugs, potentially protecting them from elimination and metabolism in vivo, thus improving their pharmacokinetic properties. Finally, albumin can interact with receptors overexpressed in many diseased tissues and cells, providing a unique feature for active targeting of the disease site without the addition of specific ligands to the nanocarrier. For this reason, albumin, characterized by an extended serum half-life of around 19 days, has the potential of promoting half-life extension and targeted delivery of drugs. Therefore, this article focuses on the importance of albumin as a nanodrug delivery carrier for hydrophobic drugs, taking advantage of the passive as well as active targeting potential of this nanocarrier. Particular attention is paid to the breakthrough NAB-Technology, with emphasis on the advantages of Nab-Paclitaxel (Abraxane), compared to the solvent-based formulations of Paclitaxel, i.e., CrEL-paclitaxel (Taxol) in a clinical setting. Finally, the role of albumin in carrying anticancer compounds is depicted, with a particular focus on the albumin-based formulations that are currently undergoing clinical trials. The article sheds light on the power of an endogenous substance, such as albumin, as a drug delivery system, signifies the importance of the drug vehicle in drug performance in the biological systems, and highlights the possible future trends in the use of this drug delivery system.Setar is a string or stringed instrument. In these musical instruments a stretched vibrating string produces the initial sound. They are called Chordophones as well. "Setar" consists of "Se" and "Tar". The word "Tar" means string and the word "Se" means three in Persian and for this reason "Setar" means a stringed instrument with three strings. Setar is a plucked string instrument and and the right index finger nail is used as a plectrum to pluck or strum the instrument. Setar is a fretted string instrument, thus the instrument has frets that have been tied on the neck. Setar is one of the main instruments of Persian art music.Mohammad Omar Khalil (b. 1936), a painter, master printmaker and mentor, practicing since the 1960s, is one of the most significant artists of his generation from Sudan and the Arab world. A long overdue celebration of his life’s work, Homeland Under My Nails, is the first major UK solo exhibition of his work.The term Tanbur (Persian: تنبور, pronounced [t̪ʰænˈbuːɾ, t̪ʰæmˈbuːɾ])[a] can refer to various long-necked string instruments originating in Mesopotamia, Southern or Central Asia.According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, "terminology presents a complicated situation. Nowadays the term tanbur (or tambur) is applied to a variety of distinct and related long-necked lutes used in art and folk traditions. Similar or identical instruments are also known by other terms." These instruments are used in the traditional music of Iran, India, Kurdistan, Armenia, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan (especially Avar community), Pakistan, Turkey, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.Tanbur has epic, mythical and mystical characteristics and it is often used to accompany the narration of epics. This instrument has traveled far and wide in time and space and it has taken on different names and shapes. The neck and body of Tanbur is one whole piece similar to Setar. Between 10 to 15 frets are placed on Tanbur. Iranian Tanbur has 4 strings and as mentioned before is played without a pick. Based on 3 statues found in the ruins of Shoosh, Tanbur can be dated back to 1500 B.C. Persian Tanbur travelled through Iran and Syria to Turkey and Greece and further west to Egypt. The Egyptian version has an elliptical body. It is known that Tanbur was widely used during the Sasanid dynasty and even before that. Today, Tanbur is used in mystical circles to accompany the Darvishes’ chants and mantras and is usually accompanied by Daf on such occasions.
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