Ramadan oud

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The Oud Instrument In the Arab origin, Oud is considered to be “the king of instruments”. It is assumed that the name al-oud is derived from the Arabic for “the wood” and came to Europe through North Africa. There will be nothing wrong to say that in Arab, the oud is considered to be the oldest musical instruments. In fact, it is the most central instrument in the Middle Eastern music tradition. Some others believe that it is the ancestor of the Pharaohnic Egyptian Nefer, whereas, some others say that this instrument is the forebear of the ancient Persian barbat. Beside this, oud is also known as the ancestor of the European lute.

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ContentThe Oud Instrument In the Arab origin, Oud is considered to be “the king of instruments”. It is assumed that the name al-oud is derived from the Arabic for “the wood” and came to Europe through North Africa. There will be nothing wrong to say that in Arab, the oud is considered to be the oldest musical instruments. In fact, it is the most central instrument in the Middle Eastern music tradition. Some others believe that it is the ancestor of the Pharaohnic Egyptian Nefer, whereas, some others say that this instrument is the forebear of the ancient Persian barbat. Beside this, oud is also known as the ancestor of the European lute.Persian tar is a long necked, double-bowl body instrument. Persian Tar is a string or stringed instrument. It is the newest musical instrument of Persian folklor. It only dates back to 250 years ago. It's current form was developed in the 18th century. Iranians say that Tar is the sultan of instruments. It is strongly believed that Tar is the descendent of rubab which is played in Pakistan and Afghanistan. After is has been adopted to Persian art by the musicians it became a common urban instrument. The long and narrow neck of Tar has a flat fingerboard which ends with six wooden pegs. It has three courses of double "singing" strings which lies on the fingerboard There are also two pairs of shorter strings which is under the bass and over two small copper bridges on the upper side of the fingerboard. Tuning of these strings are variable according to the performer's taste.Setar is a string or stringed instrument. In these musical instruments a stretched vibrating string produces the initial sound. They are called Chordophones as well. "Setar" consists of "Se" and "Târ". The word "Tar" means string and the word "Se" means three in Persian and for this reason "Setar" means a stringed instrument with three strings. Setar is a plucked string instrument and and the right index finger nail is used as a plectrum to pluck or strum the instrument. Setar is a fretted string instrument, thus the instrument has frets that have been tied on the neck. Setar is one of the main instruments of Persian art music.Persian tar is a long necked, double-bowl body instrument. Persian Tar is a string or stringed instrument. It is the newest musical instrument of Persian folklor. It only dates back to 250 years ago. It's current form was developed in the 18th century. Iranians say that Tar is the sultan of instruments. It is strongly believed that Tar is the descendent of rubab which is played in Pakistan and Afghanistan. After is has been adopted to Persian art by the musicians it became a common urban instrument. The long and narrow neck of Tar has a flat fingerboard which ends with six wooden pegs. It has three courses of double "singing" strings which lies on the fingerboard There are also two pairs of shorter strings which is under the bass and over two small copper bridges on the upper side of the fingerboard. Tuning of these strings are variable according to the performer's taste.HOSSEIN ALIZADEH is considered an inspiration to an entire generation of Iran’s musical culture. He was born in Tehran in 1951, and has studied with various masters of traditional Persian music, including Ali Akbar Khan Shahnazi, Nur Ali Borumand, Abdollah Davami, Mahmood Karimi, and Houshang Zarif. He further expanded his formal education by studying composition and musicology at the University of Berlin. Alizadeh was awarded a position with the National Orchestra of Iran and later became the conductor and soloist of the Iranian National Radio and Television Orchestra. He founded the Aref Ensemble and performed with the Shayda Ensemble, both dedicated to the promotion and advancement of Iranian classical music. He also participated in the orchestra of the Béjart Ballet Company in a performance of Gulistan, by Maurice Béjart. In 2000, the Ministry of Culture in Iran declared him the best contemporary artist.Albumin is an appealing carrier in nanomedicine because of its unique features. First, it is the most abundant protein in plasma, endowing high biocompatibility, biodegradability, nonimmunogenicity, and safety for its clinical application. Second, albumin chemical structure and conformation allows interaction with many different drugs, potentially protecting them from elimination and metabolism in vivo, thus improving their pharmacokinetic properties. Finally, albumin can interact with receptors overexpressed in many diseased tissues and cells, providing a unique feature for active targeting of the disease site without the addition of specific ligands to the nanocarrier. For this reason, albumin, characterized by an extended serum half-life of around 19 days, has the potential of promoting half-life extension and targeted delivery of drugs. Therefore, this article focuses on the importance of albumin as a nanodrug delivery carrier for hydrophobic drugs, taking advantage of the passive as well as active targeting potential of this nanocarrier. Particular attention is paid to the breakthrough NAB-Technology, with emphasis on the advantages of Nab-Paclitaxel (Abraxane), compared to the solvent-based formulations of Paclitaxel, i.e., CrEL-paclitaxel (Taxol) in a clinical setting. Finally, the role of albumin in carrying anticancer compounds is depicted, with a particular focus on the albumin-based formulations that are currently undergoing clinical trials. The article sheds light on the power of an endogenous substance, such as albumin, as a drug delivery system, signifies the importance of the drug vehicle in drug performance in the biological systems, and highlights the possible future trends in the use of this drug delivery system.
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